دراسة منهج الإمام مالك في المؤطأ

Keywords: Methodology, Imam Malik , Muwaṭṭa, fiqh, Madina Munawwarah المنهجية ، الإمام مالك ، المؤطأ ، الفقه ، المدينة المنورة


The book of Imam Malik “Muwatta” is considered to be the source of at least three schools of Sunni jurisprudence by most scholars; Shah Waliullah considers it to be the basis of all four schools and says that these schools may be considered commentaries on the text of Muwatta. (Ambiguous).The book covers rituals, rites, customs, traditions, norms and laws given by our beloved Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). And no drought that the book has been compiled with great diligence and meticulousness. Imam Malik composed the 'Muwatta' over a period of forty years to represent the "well-trodden path" of the people of Madina Munawwarah. Its name also means that it is the book that is "many times agreed upon"- about whose contents the people of Madina were unanimously agreed. Its high standing is such that people of every school of fiqh and all of the imams of hadith scholarship agree upon its authenticity.The conditions he followed in his book are among the most reliable and strongest of conditions. He followed a method of erring on the side of caution and choosing only sound reports. Hence we find that many of the isnaads (chains) of Imam Maalik are of the highest standard of saheeh. Because of this, Imam Bukhaari and Muslim narrated most of his ahaadeeth in their books. In compiling his book, Imam Maalik followed the method of compilation that was current during his time, so he compiled the Hadiths with the words of the companions of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and Taabi’een (who came after them) and legal opinions. (Ambiguous).The reports of the companions number 613 and the reports of the Taabi’een number 285. (Ambiguous).In one chapter the Hadiths appear first, and are followed by the reports of the Sahaabah and Taabi’een, and sometimes he mentions the actions of the people of Madinah, so his book is a book of fiqh and hadeeth at the same time, it is not just a book of reports only.We also find that it is limited to sections on fiqh, etiquette and the actions of day and night. There is nothing in his book about Tawheed, zuhd (asceticism), the Resurrection, stories and tafseer.